Tuesday, May 31, 2011

How to print every file inside a folder with just one command line in Linux/UNIX

This time I want to introduce you a very easy way to print every file inside a folder directly from the Terminal in a Linux/UNIX system:

The command is called lpr and here is a short definition of it provided from http://linux.about.com/:


NAME
lpr - print files  

SYNOPSIS
lpr [ -E ] [ -P destination ] [ -# num-copies [ -l ] [ -o option ] [ -p] [ -r ] [ -C/J/T title ] [ file(s) ]

DESCRIPTION
lpr submits files for printing. Files named on the command line are sent to the named printer (or the system default destination if no destination is specified). If no files are listed on the command-line lpr reads the print file from the standard input.

OPTIONS

The following options are recognized by lpr:

-E 
Forces encryption when connecting to the server.

-P destination
Prints files to the named printer.

-# copies
Sets the number of copies to print from 1 to 100.

-C name
Sets the job name.

-J name
Sets the job name.

-T name
Sets the job name.

-l
Specifies that the print file is already formatted for the destination and should be sent without filtering. This option is equivalent to "-oraw".

-o option
Sets a job option.

-p
Specifies that the print file should be formatted with a shaded header with the date, time, job name, and page number. This option is equivalent to "-oprettyprint" and is only useful when printing text files.

-r
Specifies that the named print files should be deleted after printing them.


#####################

So, here is a little example using the lpr command:

Lets suppose, that we have 229 PDFs files inside a folder and we want to print them all obviously without the need to open each of them, then click "File" then "Print", select the number of copies and finally click PRINT.

Just imagine the amounts of time that that will requires if we do it manually, so we will do something much better with just one line of text inside a Terminal ;)

NOTE: If you want to export your files (the ones that are supported by OpenOffice like *.doc, *ppt, *.odp, *odt and so on) we can use another Linux/UNIX program called UNOCONV and in a past post I teach you in a simple way how to use it.

Folder with many PDFs file of the example

The best command that satisfies my needs is the next one:

$ lpr -o landscape -s -P Photosmart-C5200-series *.pdf


Explanation:

-o landscape =  means that inside the parameters of the printing, I specifies that every file must be printed in a landscape way.

-P Photosmart-C5200-series  = means that I specifies to the command, that the printer that I want to use is Photosmart-C5200-series ( I recommend you to be sure about this parameter to avoid sending 10,000 files to an undesired printer device).

*.pdf  = means that every PDF file inside the folder will be printed (You know, this can be changed to *.odt (to print every OpenOffice Writer Text file and so on).

Here is a screenshot of my Terminal inside that folder with the whole command typed in:



Hope this entry will help someone ;)

Benjamin

Thursday, May 26, 2011

Document automata .. How to export my *.doc, *odp, *.odt (and so on) files to other formats (*.pdf included) directly from the Terminal.

Hello there! In this little tutorial I want to introduce this UNIX program called UNOCONV:

Here is the official description of the file:


Unoconv converts between any document format that OpenOffice understands. It uses OpenOffice's UNO bindings for non-interactive conversion of documents.

Supported document formats include Open Document Format (.odt), MS Word (.doc), MS Office Open/MS OOXML (.xml), Portable Document Format (.pdf), HTML, XHTML, RTF, Docbook (.xml), and more.

And here is the reference of the program from the Linux Man Page: http://linux.die.net/man/1/unoconv

In this example, we are going to convert a bunch of files of *.ppt, *.doc, *.odt that are inside the same folder to *.pdf (now imagine the human time required to open every file and export them manually to PDF, but with UNOCONV that is going to be done in 1 line code).

Example files inside the same folder


1. Download the program:
In Debian based distros (like Ubuntu) type this in the terminal:


$  sudo apt-get install unoconv


2. Open a Terminal (or it can be the same that we used before to install the program) and go to the directory of the files that we want to change the format (Remember that is possible to take a look for what is inside a folder from the Terminal by typing the UNIX command "ls").

3. Now in the directory, we can use combination of parameters to select the best that fits our problem.


In the particular case of this example, I want to export every file inside the folder to *.pdf here with this code:


$ unoconv -f pdf *.*


Example


Explanation of the parameters:

  1. unoconv = name of the program
  2. -f = output files, I choose "pdf" because I want that all the files inside the folder (*.doc, *.ppt, etc) be exported to this pdf format.
  3. *.* = means that every file with any name (because the asterisk is before the dot) and every file with any extension (the asterisk after the dot) will be used as input by the unoconv program.
4. Finally, we execute the program by pressing enter and see the results inside the folder.



And the output from the Terminal with the UNIX command "ls" :


As you can see is very easy to use and very helpful when we need to export thousands of files from one editable format to PDF and obviously, we do not want to do it manually.


This program also helps you if you use OpenOffice and you want to convert every MS Office to a format that best fits us dear Linux users.

Hope this short Tutorial helps someone!

Benjamin Tovar

Wednesday, May 25, 2011

Hello, is there any GENOBIOTEC out there?..

Have been so long since my last post, but trust me, I was busy in orders of magnitude because I am a member of the AsEBioGen (Student Association of Genomic Biotechnology in Spanish)  and we have the proudly tradition that every 2 years we organize and build up an International Congress of Biotechnology ;)

This year our congress began the 19th of May and the last Saturday 21th our congress GENOBIOTEC 2011 finally concluded.
It was a kind of crazy stuff, you never ever got an idea of the amounts of work that the whole project requires, I can resume thousands of words saying that in three days I only went to sleep 6 or 7 hours.

But now, for the exhausted ears of my appreciated team co-workers now we are done and we did such a very good work.

Congratulations to all of you AsEBioGen 2010-2012 members!




Special thanks to:


Workshop Manager:
Paulyna Magaña.

Webmaster:
Daniel Rodríguez.  


Transportation Chief and Logistics:

Jesús Montes.
Daniel Rodríguez.  

Allyson Treviño.
Gilberto Saca.


FOR ALL THE STAFF OF GENOBIOTEC 2011 THANK YOU VERY MUCH!

Sunday, May 8, 2011

The first 20 years of something really cool ...

This year, the 2011 means something very special for many (if not almost) Computer Scientists:

We are celebrating the first 20th years of Linux!!




I feel the need to express it because I am very grateful with all the developers that brings up everyday new possibilities of free, awesome, useful, modifiable and stable software for thousands of different purposes such scientific ones to video games or word processors .

I cannot be able to found another way to tell them how grateful I am for that.




Thank you so much for all the Tux guardians all around the world ;)

Saturday, May 7, 2011

My Conky Desktops :)

Hello everyone, I am back and what a week D:

Today night I want to share two screenshots of my laptops, If you are curious I am a proudly user of CrunchBang Linux.

Here is the first image from my Acer laptop:



The Code for the first Conky  configuration file (.conkyrc) is the following:


# To use #! in a conky use: ${exec echo '#!'}
# CBL-bottom_1
# killall conky && conky -c ~/CBL/CBL_bottom_1
# WARNING: e-mail is a fake, add your own code.
# 
# Heavily inspired by .conkyrc file of sector11
#
# Last modifications: Benjamin Tovar / May 2011. 
# 
#######################################################################
background no
own_window yes
own_window_type override
own_window_transparent yes
own_window_hints skip_taskbar,skip_pager
own_window_title CBL-bottom_1
own_window_class CBL-bottom_1

use_xft yes
xftfont monospace:bold:size=8
xftalpha 1.0
override_utf8_locale yes
update_interval 1
total_run_times 0
double_buffer yes
no_buffers yes
cpu_avg_samples 2
net_avg_samples 2
use_spacer none
draw_shades no
draw_outline no
draw_borders no
draw_graph_borders no
uppercase no
imlib_cache_size 0
minimum_size 1270 800
maximum_width 1270
stippled_borders 8
border_margin 4
border_width 1
#alignment bm
#gap_x 0 # left & right
#gap_y -215 # up & down
#border_inner_margin 0
#border_outer_margin 0

# position ############################################################
alignment top_left
#alignment top_middle
#alignment top_right
#alignment bottom_left
#alignment bottom_middle
#alignment bottom_right
#alignment middle_left
#alignment middle_right
gap_x 0
gap_y 0

# Colors
default_color DCDCDC #Gainsboro
color0 7FFF00 #Chartreuse
color1 FFA07A #LightSalmon
color2 FF8C00 #Darkorange
color3 778899 #LightSlateGrey
color4 FFD700 #Gold
color5 FFDEAD #NavajoWhite
color6 00BFFF #DeepSkyBlue
color7 48D1CC #MediumTurquoise
color8 FFFF00 #Yellow
color9 FFFFFF #White


text_buffer_size 6144 # 256 is the minimum
short_units yes
pad_percents 2
top_name_width 12

TEXT
${voffset 80}${offset 80}${font zekton:size=12}$color7 /$color3 NEWS FROM SOFTPEDIA LINUX$color3 /
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 0}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 1}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 2}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 3}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 4}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 5}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 6}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 7}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 8}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 9}

${voffset -200}${offset 800}${font zekton:size=20}$color8 /$color3 SYSTEM$color8 /
${offset 800}$color2 $sysname$color9 -$color2 $machine
${offset 800}$color2 $kernel
${offset 800}$color2 CrunchBang$color9 on$color2 $nodename
${offset 800}$color6 DREAM SEQUENCER: $color9 ONLINE


${voffset 10}${offset 600}${font LCDMono:bold:size=11}$color8 /$color3 COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY:$color8 /
${offset 600}$color9 "The difference between theory and practice is that in theory, there is 
${offset 620}$color9 no difference between theory and practice". $color6 – Richard Moore

${voffset 15}${offset 620}${font LCDMono:bold:size=11}$color8 /$color3 MODELING AND SIMULATIONS:$color8 /
${offset 620}$color9 "Essentially, all models are wrong, but some are useful".$color6 – George E. P. Box

${voffset -200}${offset 80}${font zekton:size=12}$color7 /$color3 NEWS FROM PLANET EARTH $color3 /
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 0}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 1}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 2}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 3}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 4}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 5}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 6}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 7}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 8}
${offset 80}$color9 >$color9${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 9}


${voffset 40}${goto 500}${color3}${font zekton:size=20}${exec echo '#!'} Crunchbang 10${font}${color}${voffset -10}${goto 790}${font LCDMono:bold:size=17}${color}Uptime: ${color7}$uptime_short${color}${goto 990}${time %T}${font}
${voffset -00}${goto 152}${color6}${cpubar cpu5 1,948}${color}
${goto 162}${voffset -35}${font LCDMono:bold:size=17}${color3}SU MO ${color}${time %b %y}${color3} FR SA
${voffset 12}${color3}${execpi 60 DJS=`date +%_d`; cal | sed '2d' | sed '1d' | sed '/./!d' | sed 's/$/ /' | fold -w 21 | sed -n '/^.\{21\}/p' | sed 's/^/${goto 150} /' | sed /" $DJS "/s/" $DJS "/" "'${color4}'"$DJS"'${color3}'" "/}${font}
${goto 435}${voffset -120}${font zekton:size=17}${color5}wlan0: ${font LCDMono:bold:size=17}${color7}${addr wlan0}${color}${font}
${goto 435}${voffset -000}${font DejaVu Sans Mono:bold:size=9}${color3}Temperatures:${goto 533}${color3}| Usage: (%)
${goto 435}${voffset 05}${color3} CPU: $color6 ${acpitemp}°C ${goto 533}${color3}| CPU: ${color6}${cpu cpu0}
${goto 533}${color3}| RAM: ${color6}${memperc}
${goto 533}${color3}| Root: ${color6}${fs_used_perc /}
${goto 533}${color3}| Email:${color} 0${goto 630}${color6}&${color5} 0
${goto 710}${voffset -108}${font zekton:size=15}${color5}CPU${font} ${color6}${cpubar cpu6 1,150}${color}${goto 910}${voffset -12}${font zekton:size=15}${color5}MEMORY${font} ${color6}${cpubar cpu6 1,100}${color}
${color3}${goto 710}Name${goto 805}CPU${goto 860}MEM${color}${color3}${goto 910}Name${goto 1005}CPU${goto 1060}MEM${color}
${voffset 5}${goto 710}${top name 1}${goto 790}${top cpu 1}${goto 845}${top mem 1}${goto 910}${top_mem name 1}${goto 990}${top_mem cpu 1}${goto 1045}${top_mem mem 1}
${goto 710}${top name 2}${goto 790}${top cpu 2}${goto 845}${top mem 2}${goto 910}${top_mem name 2}${goto 990}${top_mem cpu 2}${goto 1045}${top_mem mem 2}
${goto 710}${top name 3}${goto 790}${top cpu 3}${goto 845}${top mem 3}${goto 910}${top_mem name 3}${goto 990}${top_mem cpu 3}${goto 1045}${top_mem mem 3}
${goto 710}${top name 4}${goto 790}${top cpu 4}${goto 845}${top mem 4}${goto 910}${top_mem name 4}${goto 990}${top_mem cpu 4}${goto 1045}${top_mem mem 4}
${goto 710}${top name 5}${goto 790}${top cpu 5}${goto 845}${top mem 5}${goto 910}${top_mem name 5}${goto 990}${top_mem cpu 5}${goto 1045}${top_mem mem 5}${font}${color}

And my Toshiba laptop:


And the .conkyrc file of my Toshiba laptop:

# -*- conf -*-
#
# ~/.conkyrc - Conky configuration file
#
# By arpbook http://www.arpbook.com
#
# Heavily inspired by .conkyrc file of
# Henrik Brix Andersen 
#
# Thanks to him.
#
# Last modifications: Benjamin Tovar / December 2010. 
# 
#######################################################################
# variables ###########################################################

# fork to background ? ################################################
background no

# font settings #######################################################
use_xft yes
#font monospace-8
xftfont Acknowledge TT BRK:size=8
#xftfont Edit Undo BRK:size=8
#xftfont Visitor TT2 BRK:size=10
uppercase yes
override_utf8_local yes

# update every 1 secs #################################################
update_interval 1

# stay running forever ################################################
total_run_times 0

# draw to root window #################################################
own_window no

# avoid flickering ####################################################
double_buffer yes

# size ################################################################
minimum_size 1270 800
maximum_width 1270

# position ############################################################
alignment top_left
#alignment top_middle
#alignment top_right
#alignment bottom_left
#alignment bottom_middle
#alignment bottom_right
#alignment middle_left
#alignment middle_right
gap_x 0
gap_y 0

# colors ##############################################################
default_color white
default_shade_color white
default_outline_color black
# custom colors #######################################################
color0 FFFFFF
color1 F5F5F5
color2 A2AEC6
color3 696969
color4 D3D3D3
color5 6495ED
color6 87CEFA
color7 5F9EA0
color8 BBBBBB
color9 262729


# borders #############################################################
draw_borders no
draw_graph_borders no
stippled_borders 8
border_margin 4
border_width 1

# shades ##############################################################
draw_shades no

# outline #############################################################
draw_outline no

# spacer ##############################################################
use_spacer no

# buffers (Substract (file system) buffers from used memory?)##########
no_buffers yes

# sampling ############################################################
cpu_avg_samples 2
net_avg_samples 2

# configuration #######################################################
TEXT
${voffset 10}${offset 10}$color8 /$color3 System$color8 /
${offset 10}$color2 $sysname$color9 -$color2 $machine
${offset 10}$color2 $kernel
${offset 10}$color2 CrunchBang$color9 on$color2 $nodename
${offset 10}$color6 ${time %A %d/%m/%y %kh%M}
${offset 10}$color2 Uptime :$color6 $uptime

${offset 10}$color8 /$color3 email$color8 /
${offset 15}$color2 @gmail.com : $color4${execi # PATH TO THE SCRIPT -> 150 python /~/gmail.py}



${voffset -120}${offset 880}$color8 /$color3 OMG Ubuntu RSS$color8 /
${offset 880}$color2 >$color4${rss http://feeds.feedburner.com/d0od 60 item_title 0}
${offset 880}$color2 >$color4${rss http://feeds.feedburner.com/d0od 60 item_title 1}
${offset 880}$color2 >$color4${rss http://feeds.feedburner.com/d0od 60 item_title 2}
${offset 880}$color2 >$color4${rss http://feeds.feedburner.com/d0od 60 item_title 3}
${offset 880}$color2 >$color4${rss http://feeds.feedburner.com/d0od 60 item_title 4}


${offset 895}$color8 /$color3 Softpedia News - Linux RSS$color8 /
${offset 895}$color2 >$color4${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 0}
${offset 895}$color2 >$color4${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 1}
${offset 895}$color2 >$color4${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 2}
${offset 895}$color2 >$color4${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 3}
${offset 895}$color2 >$color4${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 4}
${offset 895}$color2 >$color4${rss http://news.softpedia.com/newsRSS/Linux-7.xml 60 item_title 5}


${voffset -5}
${offset 60}/$color2 CPU Temperature (both cores) :$color4 ${acpitemp}°C


${offset 70}$color8 /$color3 CPU 1 #01$color8 /
${offset 80}$color2 Load: $color9 ${cpubar cpu1 6,220} $color4${cpu cpu1}$color2 %
${offset 80}$color4 ${cpugraph cpu1 15,255 262729 87CEFA}
${offset 70}$color8 /$color3 CPU 2 #02$color8 /
${offset 80}$color2 Load: $color9 ${cpubar cpu2 6,220} $color4${cpu cpu2}$color2 %
${offset 80}$color4 ${cpugraph cpu2 15,255 262729 87CEFA}

${voffset -90}${offset 935}$color8 /$color3 CNN INTERNATIONAL TOP STORIES RSS$color8 /
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 0}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 1}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 2}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 3}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 4}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 5}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 6}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 7}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 8}
${offset 935}$color2 >$color4${rss http://rss.cnn.com/rss/edition.rss 60 item_title 9}



${voffset 10}${offset 20}$color8 /$color3 Wifi (wlan0)$color8 /
${offset 35}$color2 essid : $color4${wireless_essid wlan0}$color2 - MAC : $color4${wireless_ap wlan0}
${offset 35}$color2 Wifi Level : $color4${wireless_link_qual wlan0}$color2 /$color4 ${wireless_link_qual_max wlan0}$color2 - Quality: $color4 ${wireless_link_qual_perc wlan0}
${offset 35}$color2 IPv4 : $color4${addr wlan0}$color2 -$color4 ${execi 1800 ~/.conky/ip.sh}
${offset 30}$color2 Down : $color4 ${downspeed wlan0}$color2 kb/s
${offset 30}$color4 ${downspeedgraph wlan0 15,250 262729 87CEFA}
${offset 30}$color2 Up : ${offset 6} $color4 ${upspeed wlan0}$color2 kb/s
${offset 30}$color4 ${upspeedgraph wlan0 15,250 262729 87CEFA}

${voffset -155}${offset 1060}$color8 /$color3 Power$color8 /
${offset 1055}$color2 $acpiacadapter$color4 $battery
${offset 1050}$color2 Time Left :$color4 $battery_time
${offset 1045}$color9 ${battery_bar 6,160}

${voffset 115}${offset 20}$color8 /$color3 Volumes$color8 /
${offset 35}$color2 #!-root : $color4 ${fs_used_perc /}% - ${fs_used /} + ${fs_free /} = ${fs_size /}
${offset 35}$color9 ${fs_bar 6,320 /}
${offset 50}$color2 #!-home : $color4 ${fs_used_perc /home}% - ${fs_used /home} + ${fs_free /home} = ${fs_size /home}
${offset 50}$color9 ${fs_bar 6,320 /home}
${offset 65}$color2 /root : $color4 ${fs_used_perc /}% - ${fs_used /} + ${fs_free /} = ${fs_size /}
${offset 80}$color2 /home : $color4 ${fs_used_perc /home}% - ${fs_used /home} + ${fs_free /home} = ${fs_size /home}


${voffset -90}${offset 600}$color8 /$color3 Memory$color8 /
${offset 605}$color2 RAM: ${offset 0} $color9 ${membar 6,200}$color4 $mem ($memperc%)
${offset 610}$color2 Swap: $color9 ${swapbar 6,200}$color4 $swap ($swapperc%)

${voffset -90}${offset 1110}$color8 /$color3 Activity$color8 /
# I don't know why the hdd temp is N/A
${offset 1105}$color2 Hdd Temp:$color4 ${hddtemp /dev/sda}
${offset 1100}$color2 Read/Write: $color4 $diskio
${offset 1090}$color2 Process :$color4 $running_processes$color2 /$color4 $processes
${offset 1090}$color6 ${top name 1}$alignr$color4 ${top cpu 1}%
${offset 1090}$color5 ${top name 2}$alignr$color4 ${top cpu 2}%
${offset 1090}$color5 ${top name 3}$alignr$color4 ${top cpu 3}%
${offset 1090}$color5 ${top name 4}$alignr$color4 ${top cpu 4}%
${offset 1090}$color5 ${top name 5}$alignr$color4 ${top cpu 5}%
${offset 1090} ${diskiograph 15,180 262729 87CEFA} 

Hope it helps someone ;)




Thursday, May 5, 2011

Hallå, Hallo, Hello, Hola ...

Well, this is my first post in my first Blog (probably it's going to take me a few weeks to get it).

I feel very happy, I have many good intentions such as posting tutorials and short human readable scripts for Perl, R, Bash, LaTex and other stuff (I mean human readable because I am from a 100% Biology based Bachelor Degree in Life Sciences, so I am far away to get those computer guru skills).

Today is 5 of May and for my country (Mexico) is a special day, today we remind how we defeat the French army in Puebla in 1862 and yes! that also means that we did not go to school.


Finally I want to share a disclaimer with you my dear reader: my mother tongue is Spanish, so with a p value close to 0.9 I might write some mistakes in the text grammatically speaking, stochastic appearing of some typos and I want to warn you, then I want to apologize but I will try hard to avoid those mistakes.